Perhaps one of the most fabled females of early American (ie United States) history is Betsy Ross. Legend has her designing the American flag, consisting of a ring of stars representing the states as well as thirteen stripes representing the colonies that started the fight. Debate over the actual designer remains, as its largely thought that Ms. Ross did not in fact design that flag. Still, I thought it would be interesting to look into the life of the woman legend has claimed. Continue reading
Happy Independence Day to my readers from the US. Today is a post day, but as its a National Holiday and busy day for many of us celebrating, I decided to do another simple post, this time random facts about July 4th.
To my non-US readers, I swear this whole month won’t be a FREEEDOOOM month. While the theme of the Women of History posts will be American, it will otherwise not be US centric like this. Happy Republic Day to those in the Philippines, and a happy belated Canada Day to those in Canada.
So here we go, some interesting facts about Independance Day
- – July 4th became a federal holiday in 1870, nearly a hundred years after the country was founded. It became a paid federal holiday in 1938.
- The vote on the Declaration of Independence took place on July 2, the publication took place on July 4th (with two signatures including John Hancock’s) and wasn’t completely signed till August of that year. We also wouldn’t have ‘won our independence’ till 1783. John Adams reportedly observed Independence Day on July 2nd and considered the 4th to be wrong.
- Two of the men who worked on the Declaration – John Adams and Thomas Jefferson – would become President. They also would die on July 4, 1826, 50 years later, just hours apart. James Monroe, another president, died on July 4, 1831. Calvin Coolidge was born on Independence day in 1872, only a few short years before the centennial celebration.
- The Philippines celebrates July 4th as their Republic Day because they were recognized as an independent Nation and no longer a US territory on July 4, 1946.
- We did not have a written plan for our government till November 1777. It would not be fully ratified until March 1, 1781. The Articles of Confederation would be scrapped in favor of the US Constitution in 1787. So the government we are all familar with didn’t exist for 11 years after the Declaration of Independence. The Constitution was effective just a few months before the US’ 12th birthday in 1789.
- The first time the 50 state flag was displayed was July 4, 1960. Hawaii and Alaska had become states 10 months earlier, but they waited till the 4th to present the new flag. It has been 58 years since there was a change made to the Flag.
- The Freedom of Information Act was signed on July 4, 1966 by President Johnson.
Since it’s the week of the Fourth of July, I figured I’d start the month with a post about my favorite US government focused films and TV shows. I’ve come up with a list of movies and TV shows that I feel are good and also happen to have that theme. Hopefully you’ll agree with me. I’m sure there are many films and shows that should be on the list that I don’t include. Some of this is because I simply haven’t watched them. So feel free to suggest other films and tv shows in the comments area. I know I’m missing quite a few of the classics.
West Wing (1999-2006)
West Wing was a liberal slanted TV show that showcased the inner workings of an Administration and written by Aaron Sorkin whose known for fast witty dialogue. It starred Martin Sheen as President Jed Bartlet, and included many famous faces over the years including Alan Alada, Jimmy Smits, Ed Begley Jr., Rob Lowe, and many others. This is one of the best written shows in my opinion and remains one of my favorites. While it is liberal slanted (The administration is democrat) I feel they try their best to portray the Republican characters with dignity. I do feel I should warn you – the finales tend to hit you hard with feels.
Designated Survivor (2016-?)
Designated Survivor is a show that explores the contingency of the Designated Survivor. When an attack on the capital leaves the President and most of the government dead, Tom Kirkman is sworn in as President as he was the designated survivor for the State of the Union speech. He must deal with conspiracy and rebuilding his nation after such a severe attack. IT has an excellent cast led by Kiefer Sutherland and excellent writing for the most part. While it has been cancelled by ABC, I still hope it gets renewed by another distribution company.
You can’t have an Independence day theme without mentioning the movie with the day in the title. This sci-fi thriller has aliens attacking us, and the world meeting the challenge. It has an amazing Cast (Bill Pullman, Will Smith, Jeff Goldblum, Geena Davis, Brent Spiner and Judd Hirsch) and a good script. The sequel is also pretty good, although I prefer the first movie.
The American President
This is more of a romance film then one focused on the US government. It is also has Aaron Sorkin (who wrote the majority of West Wing) on the writing staff, so maybe that’s why I liked it. In this film the President (played by Michael Douglas) falls in love with a lobbyist played by Annette Bening. It’s a cute romance, which brings us to our last selection. Also features Martin Sheen as the Chief of Staff before he would go become the President himself in Sorkin’s West Wing.
Dave is a romantic comedy featuring Kevin Kline as Dave, a temp office employee who has a side job as being President X’s double. This comes in handy when the actual president has a stroke while having an affair. The Chief of Staff brings in Dave to act as the president for a while so they could hide the president’s condition. And he manages to convince everyone, including the President’s wife (Sigourney Weaver) for awhile. But the COS is up to no good, and Dave has to decide whether to go along with the plan or change things. Also this movie has Ben Kingsley as the Vice President and Frank A. Langella Jr as Bob Alexander the corrupt Chief of Staff.
We will start June with a belated Women of Mexican-American History. Alicia Dickerson Montemayor was an American woman from Texas who was a civil rights activist, for both the rights of Latino Americans and women, an educator, and a social worker. Continue reading
[WARNING: Paintings linked within in this post may have triggering content]
1937 also happened to be when Frida became more productive as an artist, with several self-portraits and other paintings. She began to exhibit her paintings despite her own doubts about her talents. However, others did not have the same doubts and she became more recognized as an artist in her own right, rather than just the wife of Diego Rivera.
Her first solo exhibition happened in New York City in 1938. She managed to sell half of her paintings despite it being the great Depression, and her exhibit was also attended by several famous artists and public figures. It brought more attention to her art and earned her two commissions. One was for A. Conger Goodyear, who was the President and founder of the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) which remains a major art museum. Another was for Clare Boothe Luce, a socialite and political activist who commissioned a portrait of her friend, Dorothy Hale. The painting depicted Hale’s suicide, with writing on the bottom with the details of the event. The painting was controversial due to what it depicted.
This would not however be the last time that a painting of Frida’s would be considered scandalous or controversial. In fact, the following year she traveled to Paris for another exhibit of her artwork only to find the gallery refused to showcase most of her work. They found it too controversial for their audiences. However, on the brighter side the Louvre bought one of her paintings. The Frame (1938) was the first artwork by a Mexican artist that the famous art collection had bought.
Frida moved back to her childhood home, La Casa Azul, in 1939 following her divorce from Diego. She would remain there until her death, living at times with her husband and/or her sister and her children. The 1940s were a productive time for Frida, although her health started to decline even further. She tried new mediums and substrates for her art and starting making art that was considered more sellable to support herself.
She continued to exhibit her art in Mexico and the United States, attending three separate exhibits in 1940 alone. Some of her more famous paintings were painted while she was back at La Casa Azul.
1940 was troubling year personally however. While her artistic work seemed to be going higher, her personal life and health suffered. She was arrested and held for two days in Mexico City as she was investigated when her former lover, Leon Trotsky, was killed. It was suspected that she, and her sister Cristina, knew who the murderer was. She was released, however. She then found herself in San Francisco soon afterwards dealing with various health problems, including a fungal infection and back pain.
While she was in San Francisco she was reunited with Diego, and the two reconciled. They remarried in a civil ceremony on December 8, 1940 and returned to Mexico together. Their marriage remained as it was before, with both having affairs. Diego kept their old home in San Angel as a second apartment and his studio despite living at La Caza Azul.
Her health problems continued, as she had chronic pain due to her spine, her hand infection became a continuing problem, and at one point she was treated for Syphilis. She went through twenty-eight different casts in 14 years due to the pain she lived through. She also suffered from depression after her father, who she had been close to, died in 1941.
One highlight of the 1940s was that Frida’s artwork had gained more notice in her native Mexico, and she was a member of the Seminario De Cultura Mexicana, a commission of the Mexican government to spread awareness of Mexican culture. With the Seminario, she held various exhibitions, attended conferences and other promotions. It led to her accepting a teaching position in a local national Art school called La Esmeralda. Eventually her illnesses prevented her from having classes on campus, and instead she held them within her home and studio. Her students, known as Los Fridos for their devotion to her, continued her ideal of painting from Mexican culture and life. Her own works continued to be somewhat controversial, but she always kept to what she wanted to express.
In 1945, she faced another health setback. Her pain had worsened to the point that she could no longer sit or stand for long periods of time. She traveled to New York for a surgery, but in the end the surgery did not help. Like she always had, she painted her emotions into her art, such as The Wounded Deer (1946).
In 1950, she once again tried to get a bone graft, but it was not a smooth recovery, and several follow-up surgeries were required. At this point, Frida was forced to use either a wheel chair or crutches to move around. This did not stop her from being politically active or continuing her paintings. She got an adjustable easel so she could paint from her wheelchair, and campaigned for a ban on nuclear weapons. When Doctors told her she needed to be on Bed rest and therefore could not attend her solo exhibit in 1953, she had her bed delivered to the gallery and had herself carried by ambulance and stretcher to it so she could attend the event.
As the mid fifties arrived, Frida’s health declined rapidly. In August 1953, only months after her exhibit, she had a leg amputation due to gangrene. Her depression increased, and she became addicted to painkillers according to some sources. At times she was suicidal and was hospitalized in 1954.
She was active till the very end, both as a political activist and as an artist. In 1954, she released at least four paintings and she also attended a demonstration against the CIA invasion of Guatemala with her husband in July. However, her activity did nothing to help the illness, and on July 13, 1954 Frida passed away at the age of 47. Arguments about what actually caused her death appear to differ between various sources.
She was laid in state at the Palacio de Bellas Artes, a cultural center, and a communist flag covered her casket. She was later cremated and her remains displayed in an urn at her home, La Caza Azul. In her memory, Diego allowed her childhood home to become a museum to his wife’s artistic career, and for the promotion of Mexican history, culture and art. He died in 1957, and the museum opened a year later.
Frida left behind a legacy in her art, and in her courage to do what she wanted despite people telling her she couldn’t. She never let people change her into something she rather not be. She preserved through physical pain and made artwork to express her life in a surrealist way. Many people relate to her artwork. Many people also relate to her, whether it is her feminism, her politics, her disabilities, or her bisexuality.
Her artwork has only increased in value, setting records for sale prices for Mexican artists. Two Nudes in a Forest (1939) for example was auctioned in 2016 for 8 million dollars. Interest in her art and her life have increased over the last few decades due to new biographies (such as Hayden Herrera’s Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo -1983) and the fact that in 1984 her works were considered national treasures and Mexico prohibited any more from leaving the country.
In more recent years, the biopic Frida (based on Herrera’s biography) was released in 2002 and stared fellow Mexican Selma Hayek. It won several Academy awards. She also gained a mention in 2017’s Coco. In the US, she got her own postage stamp in 2001 and was inducted into the Legacy Walk in 2012. In the past year, Mattel released a Frida doll as part of her new Women Role Models collection.
Mattel Unveiled ‘Role Model’ Barbies for International Woman’s Day and I’ve never felt less Inspired – Biba Kang (Independent)
Diary of a Mad Artist – Amy Fine Collins (Vanity Fair Magazine -1995)
[WARNING: Paintings linked within in this post may have triggering content]
Frida was born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderon on July 6, 1907 in a small suburb of Mexico City. Her father was a German immigrant to Mexico, Guillermo (born Carl Wilhelm) Kahlo. He was a photographer, so the art bug came naturally to Frida. Her mother was Matilde Calderon y Gonzalez, a Mexican born woman of indigenous and Spanish descent. Guillermo and Matilde had four daughters together: Matilde, Adriana, Frida and Cristina. Frida also had two half-sisters named Maria Louisa and Margarita, but they played a lesser part in her life. Frida would be especially close to her younger sister Cristina. Continue reading
When I was 8 years old, the film Apollo 13 came out. I was immediately fascinated with the space program and its history. My main focus was on the programs prior to the space shuttle so I never looked into the history of the space shuttle outside of general missions before recently. However, one of my personal ‘heroes’ was Sally Ride, and I decided for this week to feature the first american woman in space.
Sally Kristen Ride was born on May 26, 1951 in Los Angeles, California. Her parents, while not scientists themselves, promoted her interest in exploring. When she was 12, she was able to see the first female cosmonaut in space, Valentina Tereshkova, take her turn. It would be 1982 before another woman would enter space.
After graduating from a private high school she attended on tennis scholarship, she attended Swarthmore College. Eventually she would transfer to Stanford University, where she would earn her bachelor degree in both english and Physics. She continued her education in physics, eventually gaining her PhD in Physics in 1978. Her main focus was lasers and astrophysics.
While finishing her doctorate, she answered an advertisement seeking applicants for NASA. She was chosen to join in 1978, and would continue to be a part of NASA’s team for the next several decades. Her class of astronauts were the first to include women, and she was one of six. She didn’t immediately get on a shuttle. Her first positions were as a communicator between the ground and the capsule for the second and third space shuttle flights (Columbia STS-2 and STS-3) in the early eighties. She was also on the team to develop some of the technology that would be installed in later Shuttles, such as the Canada-Arm robotic arm.
In 1982, the USSR launched another woman into space, this time Svetlana Savitskaya. It would be the following year that Sally got to be the first American woman to reach earth orbit. Her first mission was the Challenger STS-7 mission.
Like every other astronaut she prepared for her mission, and did press conferences.Prior to the launch in June, Sally did a press run. People were fascinated with how a woman would deal with the rigors of space travel – although several questions were sexist in nature. She was asked about her reproductive cycle, and if she cried if things went wrong. People at NASA wondered if she needed a 100 tampons on her trip.
On June 18, 1983, the Challenger launched and was in orbit for nearly seven days (returning to earth on June 24th). Sally was on board with four other crew members, all but one rookies, and together they launched several satellites, and conducted experiments. It also allowed her to use the arm she helped design. Overall it was a successful mission.
A year later, in 1984, Sally traveled into space again on the Challenger STS-41-G. This mission lasted for nearly 9 days. It was also a mission with several firsts. It was the first time two women had served on the same mission (Sally and Kathryn Sullivan), and it also contained two foreign astronauts. It was also a crew of seven, the most crew members that the shuttle had held to that point. An IMAX camera was used to film the flight, and the footage was later used in the film ‘The Dream is Alive’.
Sally’s third mission was scheduled for the summer of 1986, but was cancelled when tragedy struck in January. On January 28, 1986 the Challenger was launched, but never made it to orbit. the ship exploded in mid-flight, leading to the deaths of all on board. For the next two years, missions were scrubbed and a in-depth investigation took place to prevent it from happening again. Sally was assigned to one of the teams investigating the operations.
After the end of the investigation, Sally was put in charge of putting together an Office of Exploration in DC and making plans for the future of NASA after such a tragedy. This would be her last assignment for NASA, choosing to go into education afterwards. However, it was not her last involvement with the agency.
In 1987 she started to work at Stanford as part of the Center for International Security and Arms control, and two years later she became a professor of physics at the University of California in San Diego. She also became involved with NASA’s outreach programs to educate students and promote science and exploration. This would become a focus of Sally’s public life in the 90s and 2000s.
In 1985, she became involved with the love of her life, Tam O’Shaughnessy. They had been long time friends, and their romantic relationship was kept private from the general public who didn’t know until after Sally’s death 27 years later. Sally had been married once before, to fellow astronaut Steve Hawley, but that had ended in divorce in 1987.
Their relationship was also a professional one. Sally and Tam wrote several children’s science books over the years, and founded the Sally Ride Science organization in 2001 which promoted education and women in STEM occupations. After Sally’s death, Tam would continue to run the organization. The organization also ran the Sally Ride Science Festival, an event to promote science.
Sally would also be the president of Space.Com (One of the sources below)
Sally would once again be asked to be part of the investigation of a tragedy, this time the disintegration of the Columbia spacecraft in February 1, 2003. She was the only person to have served on both investigations.
Sally was private about her personal life, including when she was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in early 2011. On July 23, 2012 she died in her home in California.
After her death, she received several honors for her space travel and promotion of education and science. President Barack Obama presented her posthumously with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2013, and during that same year she was honored by the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. She received the highest honor given by the Space Foundation with General James E. Hill Lifetime Space Achievement Award.
Perhaps Sally’s most important legacy is the one she has as woman. Girls, like myself, grew up knowing they could make in space and in the science fields. She promoted women in the STEM fields, and the education of children in space related sciences. She also became posthumously a hero for the LGBTIA community.
In May 2018, the US Postal Service will be releasing a stamp in her honor. This June will be the 35th Anniversary of her first mission into space.
Wikipedia: Sally Ride
Wikipedia: STS-41-G /STS-17
Space.Com: Sally Ride
Sally Ride Science @ UC San Diago
NASA Biography: Sally K. Ride
A Brief History of menstruating in space
US Post Office Sally Ride Stamp